Many ten-thousand screw driven vessels navigate the sea around Europe daily. Many thousand installations at sea, down to 100 meters and more, alter the highly variable sea structure concerning temperature and salinity day and night, during summer and winter. But nowhere is this an issue. The B-W. Dong paper restricts the investigation on ‘rapid summer warms’, with the meager result that: “That is hardly more informative as van Oldenborgh concluded back in 2009: ‘climate predictions for western Europe probably underestimate the effects of anthropogenic climate change’. Many dozen papers have been published ever since on the summer warming (see B-W. Dong), improving little.
It seems high time that climatology is willing to adopt a more focused approach. On one hand summer is by far the most difficult time period due to the impact of the sun. Look instead to the winter season and for example to the norther part of Europe and it is possible to explain that “Northern European winters are getting warmer and warmer at a rate higher than global average”, due to activity by man at sea, explained in detail by A. Bernaerts: HERE & in BOX BELOW